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CEOs Have To Stop Using Smart Machines To Get Rid Of Workers – Business Intelligence Info

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CEOs Have To Stop Using Smart Machines To Get Rid Of Workers – Business Intelligence Info

admin 1月 29

Whenitcomestobuyingthings—evenbig-ticketitems—thewaywemakedecisionsmakesnosense。

Onepersonmakesanimpulsiveofferonahousebecauseofthewaythelightcomesinthroughthekitchenwindows。

Anothergleefullydrivesahigh-endsportscarofftheloteventhoughitwillprobablyneverapproachthelimitsitwasdesignedtopush。

Wecan(andusuallydo)rationalizethesedecisionsafterthefactbytalkingaboutneedingmoreclosetspaceorwantingtoout-acceleratean18-wheeleraswemergeontothehighway,butyearsofstudyhavearrivedataclearconclusion:

Whenitcomestothecustomerexperience,humanbeingsarefundamentallyirrational。

Inthebrick-and-mortarpast,companiescouldleveragethatirrationalityintime-testedways。

Theyreliedheavilyonphysicalcontext,suchasaninvitingretailspace,tomakeproductsandservicesaspsychologicallyappealingaspossible。

Theyusedwell-trainedsalespeopleandemployeestomaximizepositiveinteractionsandrescuenegativeones。

Theycarefullysequencedcustomerexperiences,suchashavingacaptain’sdinneronthefinalnightof?

acruise,toplayonourhard-wiredcravingtoendexperiencesonahighnote。

Today,though,customerinteractionsareincreasinglymovingonline。

Fortunereportsthaton2016’sBlackFriday,thedayafterThanksgivingthatissocrucialtoholidayretailresults,108。

5millionAmericansshoppedonline,whileonly99。

1millionvisitedbrick-and-mortarstores。

The9。

4%gapbetweenthetwowasadramaticchangefromjustoneyearprior,whenon-andofflineBlackFridayshoppingweremoreorlessequal。

Whenpeoplebrowseinastoreforafewminutes,anastutesalespersoncanreadthetelltalesignsthatthey’relosinginterestandheadingfortheexit。

Thesalespersoncanthenintervene,answeringquestionsandclosingthesale。

Replicatingthatinadigitalenvironmentisn’taseasy,however。

Despitealltheinvestmentscompanieshavemadetocounteracte-shoppingcartabandonment,theylackthedatathatwouldletthemanticipatewhenashopperisonthevergeofoptingoutofatransaction,andtheactionstheytaketoluresomeonebackafterwardscaneasilycomeacrossaslesshelpfulthanintrusive。

Inadigitalenvironment,companiesneedtofigureouthowtouseBigDataanalysisanddigitaldesigntocompensatefortheabsenceofpersuasivehumancommunicationandphysicalsights,sounds,andsensations。

What’smore,a2014Gartnersurveyfoundthat89%ofmarketersexpectedcustomerexperiencetobetheirprimarydifferentiatorby2016,andwe’realreadywellinto2017。

Astransactionscontinuetoshifttowardthedigitalandomnichannel,companiesneedtofigureoutnewwaystogentlypushcustomersalongthecustomerjourney—andtodosowithoutfrustrating,offending,orotherwisealienatingthem。

Thequesttounderstandonlinecustomersbetterinordertoinfluencethemmoreeffectivelyisbuiltonadecades-oldfoundation:behavioralpsychology,thestudyoftheconnectionsbetweenwhatpeoplebelieveandwhattheyactuallydo。

Allofmarketingandadvertisingisbasedonchangingpeople’sthoughtsinordertoinfluencetheiractions。

However,itwasn’tuntil2001thatanow-famousarticleintheHarvardBusinessReviewformallyintroducedtheideaofapplyingbehavioralpsychologytocustomerserviceinparticular。

Thearticle’sauthors,RichardB。

ChaseandSriramDasu,respectivelyaprofessorandassistantprofessorattheUniversityofSouthernCalifornia’sMarshallSchoolofBusiness,describehowcompaniescouldapplyfundamentaltenetsofbehavioralpsychologyresearchto“optimizethoseextraordinarilyimportantmomentswhenthecompanytouchesitscustomers—forbetterandforworse。

”Theirfivemainpointsweresimplebuthaveproveneffectiveacrossmultipleindustries:

Finishstrong。

Peopleevaluateexperiencesafterthefactbasedontheirhighpointsandtheirendings,sothewayatransactionendsismoreimportantthanhowitbegins。

Front-loadthenegatives。

Toensureastrongpositivefinish,getbadexperiencesoutofthewayearly。

Spreadoutthepositives。

Breakupthepleasurableexperiencesintosegmentssotheyseemtolastlonger。

Providechoices。

Peopledon’tliketobeshovedtowardanoutcome;theyprefertofeelincontrol。

Givingthemoptionswithintheboundariesofyourabilitytodeliverbuildstheircommitment。

Beconsistent。

Peoplelikeroutineandpredictability。

Forexample,McKinseycitesamajorhealthinsurancecompanythatexperimentedwiththisframeworkin2009aspartofitshealthmanagementprogram。

Atestgroupofpatientsreceivedregularcoachingphonecallsfromnursestohelpthemmeethealthgoals。

Thefront-loadednegativewasinherent:thepatientsknewtheyhadhealthproblemsthatneededongoingintervention,suchasweightcontrolorconsistentuseofmedication。

Nursescalledeachpatientonafrequent,regularscheduletochecktheirprogress(consistencyandspread-outpositives),suggestednextstepstokeepthemontrack(choices),andcheeredontheirimprovements(astrongfinish)。

McKinseyreportsthepatientsinthetestgroupweremoresatisfiedwiththehealthmanagementprogrambysevenpercentagepoints,moresatisfiedwiththeinsurancecompanybyeightpercentagepoints,andmorelikelytosaytheprogrammotivatedthemtochangetheirbehaviorbyfivepercentagepoints。

Thenurseswhoworkedwiththetestgroupalsoreportedincreasedjobsatisfaction。

Andtheseimprovementsallappearedinthefirsttwoweeksofthepilotprogram,withoutsignificantlyaffectingthecompany’scostsortweakingkeymetrics,likethenumberandlengthofthecalls。

Indeed,anongoingbodyofresearchshowsthatpositivereinforcementsandindirectsuggestionsinfluenceourdecisionsbetterandmoresubtlythanblatantdemands。

Thisconcepthitpopularculturein2008withthebestsellingbookNudge。

WrittenbyUniversityofChicagoeconomicsprofessorRichardH。

ThalerandHarvardLawSchoolprofessorCassR。

Sunstein,Nudgefirstexplainsthisprinciple,thenexploresitasawaytohelppeoplemakedecisionsintheirbestinterests,suchasencouragingpeopletoeathealthierbydisplayingfruitsandvegetablesateyelevelorcombattingcreditcarddebtbyplacingaprominentnoticeoneverycreditcardstatementinformingcardholdershowmuchmorethey’llspendoverayeariftheymakeonlytheminimumpayment。

Whetherthey’realtruisticorcommercial,nudgesworkbecauseourdecision-makingisirrationalinapredictableway。

Thequestionishowtoapplythatawarenesstothedigitaleconomy。

Initsearlydays,digitalmarketingassumedthatonlineshoppingwouldbepurelyrational,atoolthatcustomerswouldusetohelpthemzeroinonthebestproductatthebestprice。

Theassumptionwaslogical,butcustomerbehaviorremainedirrational。

Oursocietyisoverloadedwithinformationandshortontime,saysBradBerens,SeniorFellowattheCenterfortheDigitalFutureattheUniversityofSouthernCalifornia,Annenberg,soit’snosurprisethatthespeedofthedigitaleconomyexacerbatesourdesiretomakeafastdecisionratherthanaperfectone,aswellasincreasingourtendencytomakechoicesbasedonimpulseratherthanlogic。

Buyerswantwhattheywant,buttheydon’tnecessarilyunderstandorcarewhytheywantit。

Theyjustwanttogetitandmoveon,withminimalfriction,tothenextthing。

“Mostofourdecisionsaren’tveryimportant,andweonlyhavesomuchtimetointerrogateandanalyzethem,”Berenspointsout。

Butlimitedtimeandmentalcapacityfordecision-makingisonlyhalftheissue。

Theotherhalfisthatwhileourbrainsarebothlogicalandemotional,theemotionalside—alsoknownasthelimbicsystemor,morecasually,theprimitivelizardbrain—isfarolderandmoredeveloped。

It’sstrongenoughtooverridelogicanddriveourdecisions,leavingrationalthoughtto,well,rationalizeourchoicesafterthefact。

ThisisastrueintheB2Brealmasitisforconsumers。

Thebusinesspurchasingprocess,governedasitisbyrequestsforproposals,structuredprocurementprocesses,andpermissiongating,isdesignedtoensurethatthepeoplewithspendingauthoritymakethemostsensibledealspossible。

However,researchshowsthateveninthissupposedlyrationalprocess,therelationshipwiththesellerisstillmoreinfluentialthanproductqualityindrivingcustomercommitmentandloyalty。

BabaShiv,aprofessorofmarketingatStanfordUniversity’sGraduateSchoolofBusiness,studieshowtheemotionalbrainshapesdecisionsandexperiences。

InapopularTEDTalk,hesaysthatpeopleintheprocessofmakingdecisionsfallintooneoftwomindsets:Type1,whichisstressedandwantstofeelcomfortedandsafe,andType2,whichisboredoreagerandwantstoexploreandtakeaction。

Peoplecanmovebetweenthesetwomindsets,hesays,butinbothcases,theemotionalbrainisincontrol。

Influencingitmeansfirstdeliveringamessagethatsoothesormotivates,dependingonthemindsetthepersonhappenstobeinatthemomentandonlythenpresentingthelogicalargumenttohelprationalizetheaction。

Inthedigitaleconomy,workingwiththosetendenciesmeansdesigningdigitalexperienceswiththefullawarenessthatpeoplewillnotevaluatethemobjectively,saysRaviDhar,directoroftheCenterforCustomerInsightsattheYaleSchoolofManagement。

Sinceanyexperience’sgreatestsubjectiveimpactinretrospectdependsonwhathappensatthebeginning,theend,andthepeaksinbetween,companiesneedtodesigndigitalexperiencestooptimizethosemoments—torationallydesignexperiencesforlimitedrationality。

Thisofteninvolvesmakingmultiplesmallchangesinthewayoptionsarepresentedwellbeforethefinalnudgeintomakingapurchase。

ApaperthatDharco-authoredforMcKinseyofferstheexampleofamediacompanythatputsmostofitscontentbehindapaywallbutoffersfreeaccesstoalimitednumberofarticlesamonthasanincentivetodrivesubscriptions。

Manynonsubscribersreachedtheirlimitoffreearticlesinthemorning,buttheywereleastlikelytorespondtoasubscriptionoffergeneratedbythepaywallatthathour,becausetheywerereadingjustbeforerushingoutthedoorfortheday。

Whenthecompanydelayedoffersuntillaterintheday,whenreaderswerelessdistracted,successfulsubscriptionconversionsincreased。

Pre-selectingdefaultoptionsfornecessarychoicesisanotherwaycompaniescandesigndigitalexperiencestofollowcustomers’preferenceforthepathofleastresistance。

“Weknowfromadecadeofresearchthat…defaultsareadefactonudge,”Dharsays。

Forexample,manyonlineretailerssetadefaultshippingoptionbecausecustomershavetochooseawaytoreceivetheirpackagesandaremorelikelytopassivelyallowthedefaultoptionthanactivelychooseanotherone。

Similarly,hesays,customersaremorelikelytoenrollinaprogramwhenthedefaultchoiceissettoacceptitratherthantooptout。

Anotherintriguingpossibilityliesinthewaycustomersreactdifferentlytoon-screeninformationbasedonhowthatinformationispresented。

Evenminortweakscanhaveadisproportionateimpactonthechoicespeoplemake,asexplainedindepthbyUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeles,behavioraleconomistShlomoBenartziinhis2015book,TheSmarterScreen。

AfewoftheconclusionsBenartzireached:itemsatthecenterofalaptopscreendrawmoreattentionthanthoseattheedges。

Thoseontheupperleftofascreensplitintoquadrantsattractmoreattentionthanthoseonthelowerleft。

Andintriguingly,demographicsareimportantvariables。

Benartzicitesresearchshowingthatpeopleover40prefermorevisuallycomplicated,text-heavyscreensthanyoungerpeople,whoaredrawntosaturatedcolorsandlargeimages。

Womenlikescreensthatusealotofdifferentcolors,includingpastels,whilemenpreferprimarycolorsonagreyorwhitebackground。

PeopleinMalaysialikelotsofcolor;peopleinGermanydon’t。

Thissuggestscompaniesneedtodesigntheironlineexperiencesverydifferentlyformiddle-agedwomenthantheydoforteenageboys。

And,asBenartziwrites,“it’seasytoimagineafutureinwhicheachInternetuserhashisorherown‘aestheticalgorithm,’customizingtheappearanceofeverysitetheysee。



Applyingbehavioralpsychologytothedigitalexperienceinmoresophisticatedwayswillrequireadditionalformalresearchintorecommendationalgorithms,predictions,andotherapplicationsofcustomerdatascience,saysJimGuszcza,PhD,chiefU。

S。

datascientistforDeloitteConsulting。

Infact,givencustomers’tendencytomakethefastestdecisions,Guszczabelievesthatinsomecases,companiesmaywanttoconsidermakingchoiceenvironmentsmoredifficulttonavigate—?

aprocesshecalls“disfluencing”—inhigh-stakessituations,likemakinganimportantmedicaldecisionoranirreversiblebig-ticketpurchase。

Choosingaharder-to-readfontandalayoutthatrequiresmoretimetonavigateforcescustomerstoworkhardertoprocesstheinformation,sendingasubtlesignalthatitdeservestheircloseattention。

Thatsaid,acompanycan’tapplybehavioralpsychologytodeliveradigitalexperienceifcustomersdon’tengagewithitssiteormobileappinthefirstplace。

Addressingthisoftenmeansmakingtheprocessasconvenientaspossible,itselfabehavioralnudge。

Adigitalsolutionthat’seasytouseandsearch,offersavarietyofchoicespre-screenedforrelevance,andprovidesafriction-freetransactionprocessistheequivalentofputtingaproductateyelevel—andthatappliesfarbeyondretail。

ConsidertheGlobalEntryprogram,whichstreamlinesbordercrossingsintotheU。

S。

forpre-approvedinternationaltravelers。

Memberscanskiplongpassportcontrollinesinfavorofscanningtheirpassportsandansweringafewquestionsatatouchscreenkiosk。

Todate,1。

8millionpeoplehavedecidedthisconveniencefaroutweighstheslowpaceofapprovals。

Thebasicsofinfluencingirrationalcustomersareessentiallythesamewhetherthey’retakingplaceinastoreoronascreen。

Abusinessstillneedstoknowwhoitscustomersare,understandtheirneedsandmotivations,andgivethemareasontobuy。

Anddespitetheacceleratingshifttodigitalcommerce,westillliveinaphysicalworld。

“There’snodividebetweenold-styleanalogretailandnew-styledigitalretail,”Berenssays。

“Increasingly,thetwoareoverlapping。

Oneofthethingswe’veseenforyearsisthatpeoplegointoastorewiththeirphones,shopforabetterprice,andbuyonline。

Orviceversa:theyshoponlineandthengotoastoretonegotiateforabetterdeal。



Still,digitalincreasesthenumberoftouchpointsfromwhichthebusinesscangather,cluster,andfiltermoretypesofdatatomakegreatsuggestionsthatdelightandsurprisecustomers。

That’swhythehottestwordinmarketingtodayisomnichannel。

Bringingbehavioralpsychologytobearontherightpersonintherightplaceintherightwayattherighttimerequirescompaniestodesigncustomerexperiencesthatbridgemultiplechannels,on-andoffline。

Amazon,forexample,isknownforitsfriction-freeonlinepurchasing。

Thecompany’spilotstoreinSeattlehasnolinesorcheckoutcounters,extendingthebrandexperienceintothephysicalworldinawaythatalignswithwhatcustomersalreadyexpectofit,Dharsays。

Omnichannelhelpscountersomepeople’stendencytobelievetheirpurchasingdecisionisn’ttrulywellinformedunlesstheycansee,touch,hear,andinsomecasestasteandsmellaproduct。

Untilwehaveubiquitousaccesstovirtualrealitysystemswithfullhapticfeedback,thebestwaytoaddresstheseconcernsisbyprovidingpersonalized,timely,relevantinformationandfeedbackinthemomentthroughwhateverchannelisappropriate。

Thatcouldbeanautomatedcallcenterthatanswersfrequentlyaskedquestions,avideothatshowsaproductfromeveryangle,orademonstrationwizardbuiltintotheproduct。

Anyofthesechannelscouldalsosuggestthecustomervisittheneareststoretoreceivehelpfromahuman。

Theomnichannelapproachgivesbusinessesplentyofopportunitiestoapplysubtlenudgesacrossphysicalanddigitalchannels。

Forexample?

asupermarketchaincouldusestore-clubcarddatatopushpersonalizedofferstocustomers’smartphoneswhiletheyshop。

“Ifthedatatellsthemthatyourgoalistofeedafamilywhilebalancingnutritionandcost,theycouldsendyouane-couponofferingadiscountonabrandofbreakfastcerealthattasteslikewhatyouusuallybuybutcontainshalfthesugar,”Guszczasays。

Similarly,acarinsurancecompanycouldprovideperiodicfeedbacktopolicyholdersthroughanapporeventhedigitalscreensintheircars,hesuggests。

“Gettingawarningthatyou’remoreaggressivethan90%ofcomparabledriversandthreetipstoavoidriskandloweryourrateswouldnotonlyincentivizethedrivertobemorecarefulforfinancialreasonsbutreduceclaimsandmaketheroadsaferforeveryone。



Digitalchannelscanalsoshowshopperswhatsimilarpeopleororganizationsarebuying,letthemsolicitfeedbackfromcolleaguesorfriends,andreadreviewsfromotherpeoplewhohavemadethesamepurchases。

Thisleveragesoneofthemostfamiliarformsofbehavioralpsychology—reinforcementfrompeers—andreassuresbuyerswithShiv’sType1mindsetthatthey’remakingachoicethatmeetstheirneedsorencouragesthosewiththeType2mindsettomoveforwardwiththepurchase。

Therationalmindonlyhastoaskattheendoftheprocess“AmIgettingthebestdeal?

”AndasGuszczapointsout,“Ifyoucancreatesolutionsthatusebehavioraldesignanddigitaltechnologytoturnmypersonaldataintoinsighttoreachmygoals,you’veincreasedthevalueofyourengagementwithmesomuchthatImightevenbewillingtopayyoumore。



Manytransactionstakeplacethroughcorporateprocurementsystemsthatallowacompanytoleveragenotjustitsownpurchasingpatternsbutallthedatainamarketplacespecificallydesignedtofacilitateenterprisepurchasing。

Machinelearningcanleveragethisvastdatabaseofinformationtoprovidethenecessarynudgetooptimizepurchasingpatterns,whentobuy,howbesttonegotiate,andmore。

Tosomeextent,thisisanattempttoeliminatepsychologyandmakechoicesmorerational。

B2Bspendingistiedintofinancialsystemsandprocesses,logisticssystems,transportationsystems,andotheroperationalrequirementsinawaynoconsumerspendingcanbe。

AB2Bdecisionislessaboutmakingapurchasethatsatisfiesadesirethanitisaboutmakingapurchasethatkeepsthecompanyfunctioning。

Thatsaid,thedecisionstillisn’tentirelyrational,Berenssays。

Whenorganizationshavetochooseamongvendorsofferingrelativelysimilarproductsandservices,theygenerallyoptforthevendorwhosesalespeopletheylikethebest。

ThismeansB2Bcompanieshavetomakesuretheymeetorexceedparitywithcompetitorsonproductquality,pricing,andtimetodeliverytosatisfyalltherationalrequirementsofthedecisionprocess。

Onlythencantheybringbehavioralpsychologytobearbydeliveringconsistentlysuperiorcustomerservice,startingassoonasthecustomerhitstheirapporwebsiteandspreadingoutpositiveinteractionsallthewaythroughpost-purchasesupport。

Finishingstrongwithasatisfiedcustomerreinforcestherelationshipwithabusinesscustomerjustasmuchasitdoeswithaconsumer。

Thebestnudgesmakethecustomerrelationshipeasyandenjoyablebyprovidingexperiencesthatareeffortlessandfuntochoose,on-oroffline,Dharsays。

Whatsetsthedigitalnudgeapartinaccommodatingirrationalcustomersisitsabilitytoturndataaboutthemandtheirjourneyintomoreeffective,personalizedpersuasionevenintheabsenceofthehumantouch。

Yetthesubtleartofinfluencingcustomersisn’tjustaboutmakingasale,anditcertainlyshouldn’tbeaboutpersuadingpeopletoactagainsttheirownbestinterests,asNudgeco-authorThalerremindsaudiencesbyexhortingthemto“nudgeforgood。



Guszcza,whotalksaboutinfluencingpeopletomakethechoicestheywouldmakeifonlytheyhadunlimitedrationality,sayscompaniesthatleveragebehavioralpsychologyintheirdigitalexperiencesshoulddosowithaneyetocreatingpositiveimpactforthecustomer,thecompany,and,whereappropriate,thesociety。

Inkeepingwiththatethos,anycustomerexperiencedesignedalongbehaviorallineshastoincludetheoptionoflettingthecustomermakeadifferentchoice,suchaspresentingaconfirmationscreenattheendofthepurchaseprocesswiththecold,hardnumbersandlettingthemoptoutofthetransactionaltogether。

“Anudgeisdirectingpeopleinacertaindirection,”Dharsays。

“Butforanethicalvendor,theonlyrightdirectiontonudgeistherightdirectionasjudgedbythecustomersthemselves。

”D!

Readmorethoughtprovokingarticlesinthe?

latestissueofthe?

DigitalistMagazine,ExecutiveQuarterly。

AbouttheAuthors:

VolkerHildebrandisGlobalVicePresidentforSAPHybrissolutions。

SamYenisChiefDesignOfficerandManagingDirectoratSAP。

FawnFitterisafreelancewriterspecializinginbusinessandtechnology。

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